Windows Hidden Apps


To run any of these apps go to Start > Run and type the executable name (ie charmap).

1) Character Map = charmap.exe (very useful for finding unusual characters)

2) Disk Cleanup = cleanmgr.exe

3) Clipboard Viewer = clipbrd.exe (views contents of Windows clipboard)

4) Dr Watson = drwtsn32.exe (Troubleshooting tool)

5) DirectX diagnosis = dxdiag.exe (Diagnose & test DirectX, video & sound cards)

6) Private character editor = eudcedit.exe (allows creation or modification of characters)

7) IExpress Wizard = iexpress.exe (Create self-extracting / self-installing package)

8) Microsoft Synchronization Manager = mobsync.exe (appears to allow synchronization of files on the network for when working offline. Apparently undocumented).

9) Windows Media Player 5.1 = mplay32.exe (Retro version of Media Player, very basic).

10) ODBC Data Source Administrator = odbcad32.exe (something to do with databases)

11) Object Packager = packager.exe (to do with packaging objects for insertion in files, appears to have comprehensive help files).

12) System Monitor = perfmon.exe (very useful, highly configurable tool, tells you everything you ever wanted to know about any aspect of PC performance, for uber-geeks only )

13) Program Manager = progman.exe (Legacy Windows 3.x desktop shell).

14) Remote Access phone book = rasphone.exe (documentation is virtually non-existant).

15) Registry Editor = regedt32.exe [also regedit.exe] (for hacking the Windows Registry).

16) Network shared folder wizard = shrpubw.exe (creates shared folders on network).

17) File siganture verification tool = sigverif.exe

18) Volume Contro = sndvol32.exe (I've included this for those people that lose it from the System Notification area).

19) System Configuration Editor = sysedit.exe (modify System.ini & Win.ini just like in Win98! ).

20) Syskey = syskey.exe (Secures XP Account database - use with care, it's virtually undocumented but it appears to encrypt all passwords, I'm not sure of the full implications).

21) Microsoft Telnet Client = telnet.exe

22) Driver Verifier Manager = verifier.exe (seems to be a utility for monitoring the actions of drivers, might be useful for people having driver problems. Undocumented).

23) Windows for Workgroups Chat = winchat.exe (appears to be an old NT utility to allow chat sessions over a LAN, help files available).

24) System configuration = msconfig.exe (can use to control starup programs)

25) gpedit.msc used to manage group policies, and permissions

Cracking Zip Password Files

Cracking Zip Password Files

Tut On Cracking Zip Password Files..
What is FZC? FZC is a program that cracks zip files (zip is a method of compressing multiple files into one smaller file) that are password-protected (which means you're gonna need a password to open the zip file and extract files out of it). You can get it anywhere - just use a search engine such as
FZC uses multiple methods of cracking - bruteforce (guessing passwords systematically until the program gets it) or wordlist attacks (otherwise known as dictionary attacks. Instead of just guessing passwords systematically, the program takes passwords out of a "wordlist", which is a text file that contains possible passwords. You can get lots of wordlists at
FZC can be used in order to achieve two different goals: you can either use it to recover a lost zip password which you used to remember but somehow forgot, or to crack zip passwords which you're not supposed to have. So like every tool, this one can be used for good and for evil.
The first thing I want to say is that reading this tutorial... is the easy way to learn how to use this program, but after reading this part of how to use the FZC you should go and check the texts that come with that program and read them all. You are also going to see the phrase "check name.txt" often in this text. These files should be in FZC's directory. They contain more information about FZC.
FZC is a good password recovery tool, because it's very fast and also support resuming so you don't have to keep the computer turned on until you get the password, like it used to be some years ago with older cracking programs. You would probably always get the password unless the password is longer than 32 chars (a char is a character, which can be anything - a number, a lowercase or undercase letter or a symbol such as ! or &) because 32 chars is the maximum value that FZC will accept, but it doesn't really matter, because in order to bruteforce a password with 32 chars you'll need to be at least immortal..heehhe.. to see the time that FZC takes with bruteforce just open the Bforce.txt file, which contains such information.
FZC supports brute-force attacks, as well as wordlist attacks. While brute-force attacks don't require you to have anything, wordlist attacks require you to have wordlists, which you can get from There are wordlists in various languages, various topics or just miscellaneous wordlists. The bigger the wordlist is, the more chances you have to crack the password.
Now that you have a good wordlist, just get FZC working on the locked zip file, grab a drink, lie down and wait... and wait... and wait...and have good thoughts like "In wordlist mode I'm gonna get the password in minutes" or something like this... you start doing all this and remember "Hey this guy started with all this bullshit and didn't say how I can start a wordlist attack!..." So please wait just a little more, read this tutorial 'till the end and you can do all this "bullshit".

We need to keep in mind that are some people might choose some really weird passwords (for example: 'e8t7@$^%*gfh), which are harder to crack and are certainly impossible to crack (unless you have some weird wordlist). If you have a bad luck and you got such a file, having a 200MB list won't help you anymore. Instead, you'll have to use a different type of attack. If you are a person that gives up at the first sign of failure, stop being like that or you won't get anywhere. What you need to do in such a situation is to put aside your sweet xxx MB's list and start using the Brute Force attack.
If you have some sort of a really fast and new computer and you're afraid that you won't be able to use your computer's power to the fullest because the zip cracker doesn't support this kind of technology, it's your lucky day! FZC has multiple settings for all sorts of hardware, and will automatically select the best method.

Now that we've gone through all the theoretical stuff, let's get to the actual commands.


The command line you'll need to use for using brute force is:

fzc -mb -lChr Lenght -cType of chars

Now if you read the bforce.txt that comes with fzc you'll find the description of how works Chr Lenght and the Type of chars, but hey, I'm gonna explain this too. Why not, right?... (but remember look at the bforce.txt too)

For Chr Lenght you can use 4 kind of switches...

-> You can use range -> 4-6 :it would brute force from 4 Chr passwors to 6 chr passwords
-> You can use just one lenght -> 5 :it would just brute force using passwords with 5 chars
-> You can use also the all number -> 0 :it would start brute forcing from passwords with lenght 0 to lenght 32, even if you are crazy i don't think that you would do this.... if you are thinking in doing this get a live...
-> You can use the + sign with a number -> 3+ :in this case it would brute force from passwords with lenght 3 to passwords with 32 chars of lenght, almost like the last option...

For the Type of chars we have 5 switches they are:

-> a for using lowercase letters
-> A for using uppercase letters
-> ! for using simbols (check the Bforce.txt if you want to see what simbols)
-> s for using space
-> 1 for using numbers

If you want to find a password with lowercase and numbers by brute force you would just do something like:

fzc -mb -l4-7 -ca1

This would try all combinations from passwords with 4 chars of lenght till 7 chars, but just using numbers and lowercase.


You should never start the first brute force attack to a file using all the chars switches, first just try lowercase, then uppercase, then uppercase with number then lowercase with numbers, just do like this because you can get lucky and find the password much faster, if this doesn't work just prepare your brain and start with a brute force that would take a lot of time. With a combination like lowercase, uppercase, special chars and numbers.


Like I said in the bottom and like you should be thinking now, the wordlist is the most powerfull mode in this program. Using this mode, you can choose between 3 modes, where each one do some changes to the text that is in the wordlist, I'm not going to say what each mode does to the words, for knowing that just check the file wlist.txt, the only thing I'm going to tell you is that the best mode to get passwords is mode 3, but it takes longer time too.
To start a wordlist attak you'll do something like.

fzc -mwMode number -nwWordlist


Mode number is 1, 2 or 3 just check wlist.txt to see the changes in each mode. is the filename and Wordlist is the name of the wordlist that you want to use. Remember that if the file or the wordlist isn't in the same directory of FZC you'll need to give the all path.

You can add other switches to that line like -fLine where you define in which line will FZC start reading, and the -lChar Length where it will just be read the words in that char length, the switche works like in bruteforce mode.
So if you something like

fzc -mw1 -nwMywordlist.txt -f50 -l9+

FZC would just start reading at line 50 and would just read with length >= to 9.


If you want to crack a file called using the "theargonlistserver1.txt" wordlist, selecting mode 3, and you wanted FZC to start reading at line 50 you would do:

fzc -mw3 -nwtheargonlistserver1.txt -f50


Other good feature in FZC is that FZC supports resuming. If you need to shutdown your computer and FZC is running you just need to press the ESC key, and fzc will stop. Now if you are using a brute force attack the current status will be saved in a file called resume.fzc but if you are using a wordlist it will say to you in what line it ended (you can find the line in the file fzc.log too).
To resume the bruteforce attack you just need to do:

fzc -mr

And the bruteforce attack will start from the place where it stopped when you pressed the ESC key.
But if you want to resume a wordlist attack you'll need to start a new wordlist attack, saying where it's gonna start. So if you ended the attack to the in line 100 using wordlist.txt in mode 3 to resume you'll type

fzc -mw3 -nwwordlist.txt -f100

Doing this FZC would start in line 100, since the others 99 lines where already checked in an earlier FZC session.

Well, it looks like I covered most of what you need to know. I certainly hope it helped you... don't forget to read the files that come with the program

PC Beep Codes Error Codes

Standard Original IBM POST Error Codes

Code Description

1 short beep System is OK
2 short beeps POST Error - error code shown on screen No beep Power supply or system board problem Continuous beep Power supply, system board, or keyboard problem Repeating short beeps Power supply or system board problem
1 long, 1 short beep System board problem
1 long, 2 short beeps Display adapter problem (MDA, CGA)
1 long, 3 short beeps Display adapter problem (EGA)
3 long beeps 3270 keyboard card
IBM POST Diagnostic Code Descriptions
Code Description
100 - 199 System Board
200 - 299 Memory
300 - 399 Keyboard
400 - 499 Monochrome Display
500 - 599 Colour/Graphics Display
600 - 699 Floppy-disk drive and/or Adapter
700 - 799 Math Coprocessor
900 - 999 Parallel Printer Port
1000 - 1099 Alternate Printer Adapter
1100 - 1299 Asynchronous Communication Device, Adapter, or Port
1300 - 1399 Game Port
1400 - 1499 Colour/Graphics Printer
1500 - 1599 Synchronous Communication Device, Adapter, or Port
1700 - 1799 Hard Drive and/or Adapter
1800 - 1899 Expansion Unit (XT)
2000 - 2199 Bisynchronous Communication Adapter
2400 - 2599 EGA system-board Video (MCA)
3000 - 3199 LAN Adapter
4800 - 4999 Internal Modem
7000 - 7099 Phoenix BIOS Chips
7300 - 7399 3.5" Disk Drive
8900 - 8999 MIDI Adapter
11200 - 11299 SCSI Adapter
21000 - 21099 SCSI Fixed Disk and Controller
21500 - 21599 SCSI CD-ROM System

AMI BIOS Beep Codes

Code Description

1 Short Beep System OK
2 Short Beeps Parity error in the first 64 KB of memory
3 Short Beeps Memory failure in the first 64 KB
4 Short Beeps Memory failure in the first 64 KB Operational of memory
or Timer 1 on the motherboard is not functioning
5 Short Beeps The CPU on the motherboard generated an error
6 Short Beeps The keyboard controller may be bad. The BIOS cannot switch to protected mode
7 Short Beeps The CPU generated an exception interrupt
8 Short Beeps The system video adapter is either missing, or its memory is faulty
9 Short Beeps The ROM checksum value does not match the value encoded in the BIOS
10 Short Beeps The shutdown register for CMOS RAM failed
11 Short Beeps The external cache is faulty
1 Long, 3 Short Beeps Memory Problems
1 Long, 8 Short Beeps Video Card Problems

Phoenix BIOS Beep Codes

Note - Phoenix BIOS emits three sets of beeps, separated by a brief pause.
Code Description

1-1-3 CMOS read/write failure
1-1-4 ROM BIOS checksum error
1-2-1 Programmable interval timer failure
1-2-2 DMA initialisation failure
1-2-3 DMA page register read/write failure
1-3-1 RAM refresh verification failure
1-3-3 First 64k RAM chip or data line failure
1-3-4 First 64k RAM odd/even logic failure
1-4-1 Address line failure first 64k RAM
1-4-2 Parity failure first 64k RAM
2-_-_ Faulty Memory
3-1-_ Faulty Motherboard
3-2-4 Keyboard controller Test failure
3-3-4 Screen initialisation failure
3-4-1 Screen retrace test failure
3-4-2 Search for video ROM in progress
4-2-1 Timer tick interrupt in progress or failure
4-2-2 Shutdown test in progress or failure
4-2-3 Gate A20 failure
4-2-4 Unexpected interrupt in protected mode
4-3-1 RAM test in progress or failure>ffffh
4-3-2 Faulty Motherboard
4-3-3 Interval timer channel 2 test or failure
4-3-4 Time of Day clock test failure
4-4-1 Serial port test or failure
4-4-2 Parallel port test or failure
4-4-3 Math coprocessor test or failure
Low 1-1-2 System Board select failure
Low 1-1-3 Extended CMOS RAM failure

A Basic Guide to the Internet

The Internet is a computer network made up of thousands of networks worldwide. No one knows exactly how many computers are connected to the Internet. It is certain, however, that these number in the millions.

No one is in charge of the Internet. There are organizations which develop technical aspects of this network and set standards for creating applications on it, but no governing body is in control. The Internet backbone, through which Internet traffic flows, is owned by private companies.

All computers on the Internet communicate with one another using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol suite, abbreviated to TCP/IP. Computers on the Internet use a client/server architecture. This means that the remote server machine provides files and services to the user's local client machine. Software can be installed on a client computer to take advantage of the latest access technology.

An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services: electronic mail, file transfer, vast information resources, interest group membership, interactive collaboration, multimedia displays, real-time broadcasting, shopping opportunities, breaking news, and much more.

The Internet consists primarily of a variety of access protocols. Many of these protocols feature programs that allow users to search for and retrieve material made available by the protocol.



The World Wide Web (abbreviated as the Web or WWW) is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface. Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web. This includes e-mail, FTP, Telnet, and Usenet News. In addition to these, the World Wide Web has its own protocol: HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP. These protocols will be explained later in this document.

The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment. It is no longer necessary to be conversant in these protocols within separate, command-level environments. The Web gathers together these protocols into a single system. Because of this feature, and because of the Web's ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages, the Web is the fastest-growing component of the Internet.

The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its means of information retrieval. HyperText is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called links and are selectable by the user. A single hypertext document can contain links to many documents. In the context of the Web, words or graphics may serve as links to other documents, images, video, and sound. Links may or may not follow a logical path, as each connection is programmed by the creator of the source document. Overall, the Web contains a complex virtual web of connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos, and sounds.

Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language called HyperText Markup Language, or HTML. With HTML, tags are placed within the text to accomplish document formatting, visual features such as font size, italics and bold, and the creation of hypertext links. Graphics and multimedia may also be incorporated into an HTML document. HTML is an evolving language, with new tags being added as each upgrade of the language is developed and released. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), led by Web founder Tim Berners-Lee, coordinates the efforts of standardizing HTML. The W3C now calls the language XHTML and considers it to be an application of the XML language standard.

The World Wide Web consists of files, called pages or home pages, containing links to documents and resources throughout the Internet.

The Web provides a vast array of experiences including multimedia presentations, real-time collaboration, interactive pages, radio and television broadcasts, and the automatic "push" of information to a client computer. Programming languages such as Java, JavaScript, Visual Basic, Cold Fusion and XML are extending the capabilities of the Web. A growing amount of information on the Web is served dynamically from content stored in databases. The Web is therefore not a fixed entity, but one that is in a constant state of development and flux.

For more complete information about the World Wide Web, see Understanding The World Wide Web.


Electronic mail, or e-mail, allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange messages. Each user of e-mail has a mailbox address to which messages are sent. Messages sent through e-mail can arrive within a matter of seconds.

A powerful aspect of e-mail is the option to send electronic files to a person's e-mail address. Non-ASCII files, known as binary files, may be attached to e-mail messages. These files are referred to as MIME attachments.MIME stands for Multimedia Internet Mail Extension, and was developed to help e-mail software handle a variety of file types. For example, a document created in Microsoft Word can be attached to an e-mail message and retrieved by the recipient with the appropriate e-mail program. Many e-mail programs, including Eudora, Netscape Messenger, and Microsoft Outlook, offer the ability to read files written in HTML, which is itself a MIME type.


Telnet is a program that allows you to log into computers on the Internet and use online databases, library catalogs, chat services, and more. There are no graphics in Telnet sessions, just text. To Telnet to a computer, you must know its address. This can consist of words ( or numbers ( Some services require you to connect to a specific port on the remote computer. In this case, type the port number after the Internet address. Example: telnet 185.

Telnet is available on the World Wide Web. Probably the most common Web-based resources available through Telnet have been library catalogs, though most catalogs have since migrated to the Web. A link to a Telnet resource may look like any other link, but it will launch a Telnet session to make the connection. A Telnet program must be installed on your local computer and configured to your Web browser in order to work.

With the increasing popularity of the Web, Telnet has become less frequently used as a means of access to information on the Internet.


FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. This is both a program and the method used to transfer files between computers. Anonymous FTP is an option that allows users to transfer files from thousands of host computers on the Internet to their personal computer account. FTP sites contain books, articles, software, games, images, sounds, multimedia, course work, data sets, and more.

If your computer is directly connected to the Internet via an Ethernet cable, you can use one of several PC software programs, such as WS_FTP for Windows, to conduct a file transfer.

FTP transfers can be performed on the World Wide Web without the need for special software. In this case, the Web browser will suffice. Whenever you download software from a Web site to your local machine, you are using FTP. You can also retrieve FTP files via search engines such as FtpFind, located at / This option is easiest because you do not need to know FTP program commands.


One of the benefits of the Internet is the opportunity it offers to people worldwide to communicate via e-mail. The Internet is home to a large community of individuals who carry out active discussions organized around topic-oriented forums distributed by e-mail. These are administered by software programs. Probably the most common program is the listserv.

A great variety of topics are covered by listservs, many of them academic in nature. When you subscribe to a listserv, messages from other subscribers are automatically sent to your electronic mailbox. You subscribe to a listserv by sending an e-mail message to a computer program called a listserver. Listservers are located on computer networks throughout the world. This program handles subscription information and distributes messages to and from subscribers. You must have a e-mail account to participate in a listserv discussion group. Visit at / to see an example of a site that offers a searchablecollection of e-mail discussion groups.

Majordomo and Listproc are two other programs that administer e-mail discussion groups. The commands for subscribing to and managing your list memberships are similar to those of listserv.


Usenet News is a global electronic bulletin board system in which millions of computer users exchange information on a vast range of topics. The major difference between Usenet News and e-mail discussion groups is the fact that Usenet messages are stored on central computers, and users must connect to these computers to read or download the messages posted to these groups. This is distinct from e-mail distribution, in which messages arrive in the electronic mailboxes of each list member.

Usenet itself is a set of machines that exchanges messages, or articles, from Usenet discussion forums, called newsgroups. Usenet administrators control their own sites, and decide which (if any) newsgroups to sponsor and which remote newsgroups to allow into the system.

There are thousands of Usenet newsgroups in existence. While many are academic in nature, numerous newsgroups are organized around recreational topics. Much serious computer-related work takes place in Usenet discussions. A small number of e-mail discussion groups also exist as Usenet newsgroups.

The Usenet newsfeed can be read by a variety of newsreader software programs. For example, the Netscape suite comes with a newsreader program called Messenger. Newsreaders are also available as standalone products.


FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions.
These are periodic postings to Usenet newsgroups that contain a wealth of information related to the topic of the newsgroup. Many FAQs are quite extensive. FAQs are available by subscribing to individual Usenet newsgroups. A Web-based collection of FAQ resources has been collected by The Internet FAQ Consortium and is available at /

RFC stands for Request for Comments. 
These are documents created by and distributed to the Internet community to help define the nuts and bolts of the Internet. They contain both technical specifications and general information.

FYI stands for For Your Information.
These notes are a subset of RFCs and contain information of interest to new Internet users.

Links to indexes of all three of these information resources are available on the University Libraries Web site at /

Chat programs allow users on the Internet to communicate with each other by typing in real time. They are sometimes included as a feature of a Web site, where users can log into the "chat room" to exchange comments and information about the topics addressed on the site. Chat may take other, more wide-ranging forms. For example, America Online is well known for sponsoring a number of topical chat rooms.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a service through which participants can communicate to each other on hundreds of channels. These channels are usually based on specific topics. While many topics are frivolous, substantive conversations are also taking place. To access IRC, you must use an IRC software program.

A variation of chat is the phenomenon of instant messenging. With instant messenging, a user on the Web can contact another user currently logged in and type a conversation. Most famous is America Online's Instant Messenger. ICQ, MSN and Yahoo are other commonly-used chat programs.

Other types of real-time communication are addressed in the tutorial Understanding the World Wide Web.

MUD stands for Multi User Dimension. MUDs, and their variations listed above, are multi-user virtual reality games based on simulated worlds. Traditionally text based, graphical MUDs now exist. There are MUDs of all kinds on the Internet, and many can be joined free of charge. For more information, read one of the FAQs devoted to MUDs available at the FAQ site at

11 Fast and Free Security Enhancements

11 Fast and Free Security Enhancements

  1.  Before you spend a dime on security, there are many precautions you can take that will protect you against the most common threats.
  2. Check Windows Update and Office Update regularly (_; have your Office CD ready. Windows Me, 2000, and XP users can configure automatic updates. Click on the Automatic Updates tab in the System control panel and choose the appropriate options.
  3. Install a personal firewall. Both SyGate ( and ZoneAlarm ( offer free versions.
  4. Install a free spyware blocker. Our Editors' Choice ("Spyware," April 22) was SpyBot Search & Destroy (_ SpyBot is also paranoid and ruthless in hunting out tracking cookies.
  5. Block pop-up spam messages in Windows NT, 2000, or XP by disabling the Windows Messenger service (this is unrelated to the instant messaging program). Open Control Panel | Administrative Tools | Services and you'll see Messenger. Right-click and go to Properties. Set Start-up Type to Disabled and press the Stop button. Bye-bye, spam pop-ups! Any good firewall will also stop them.
  6. Use strong passwords and change them periodically. Passwords should have at least seven characters; use letters and numbers and have at least one symbol. A decent example would be f8izKro@l. This will make it much harder for anyone to gain access to your accounts.
  7. If you're using Outlook or Outlook Express, use the current version or one with the Outlook Security Update installed. The update and current versions patch numerous vulnerabilities.
  8. Buy antivirus software and keep it up to date. If you're not willing to pay, try Grisoft AVG Free Edition (Grisoft Inc., w* And doublecheck your AV with the free, online-only scanners available at w* and _
  9. If you have a wireless network, turn on the security features: Use MAC filtering, turn off SSID broadcast, and even use WEP with the biggest key you can get. For more, check out our wireless section or see the expanded coverage in Your Unwired World in our next issue.
  10. Join a respectable e-mail security list, such as the one found at our own Security Supersite at _, so that you learn about emerging threats quickly and can take proper precautions.
  11. Be skeptical of things on the Internet. Don't assume that e-mail "From:" a particular person is actually from that person until you have further reason to believe it's that person. Don't assume that an attachment is what it says it is. Don't give out your password to anyone, even if that person claims to be from "support." 

All about ftp must read

Setting Up A Ftp:

Well, since many of us have always wondered this, here it is. Long and drawn out. Also, before attempting this, realize one thing; You will have to give up your time, effort, bandwidth, and security to have a quality ftp server.
That being said, here it goes. First of all, find out if your IP (Internet Protocol) is static (not changing) or dynamic (changes everytime you log on). To do this, first consider the fact if you have a dial up modem. If you do, chances are about 999 999 out of 1 000 000 that your IP is dynamic. To make it static, just go to a place like h*tp:// to register for a static ip address.

You'll then need to get your IP. This can be done by doing this:
Going to Start -> Run -> winipcfg or and asking 'What is my IP?'

After doing so, you'll need to download an FTP server client. Personally, I'd recommend G6 FTP Server, Serv-U FTPor Bullitproof v2.15 all three of which are extremely reliable, and the norm of the ftp world.
You can download them on this site: h*tp://

First, you'll have to set up your ftp. For this guide, I will use step-by-step instructions for G6. First, you'll have to go into 'Setup -> General'. From here, type in your port # (default is 21). I recommend something unique, or something a bit larger (ex: 3069). If you want to, check the number of max users (this sets the amount of simultaneous maximum users on your server at once performing actions - The more on at once, the slower the connection and vice versa).

The below options are then chooseable:
-Launch with windows
-Activate FTP Server on Start-up
-Put into tray on startup
-Allow multiple instances
-Show "Loading..." status at startup
-Scan drive(s) at startup
-Confirm exit

You can do what you want with these, as they are pretty self explanatory. The scan drive feature is nice, as is the 2nd and the last option. From here, click the 'options' text on the left column.

To protect your server, you should check 'login check' and 'password check', 'Show relative path (a must!)', and any other options you feel you'll need. After doing so, click the 'advanced' text in the left column. You should then leave the buffer size on the default (unless of course you know what you're doing ), and then allow the type of ftp you want.

Uploading and downloading is usually good, but it's up to you if you want to allow uploads and/or downloads. For the server priority, that will determine how much conventional memory will be used and how much 'effort' will go into making your server run smoothly.

Anti-hammering is also good, as it prevents people from slowing down your speed. From here, click 'Log Options' from the left column. If you would like to see and record every single command and clutter up your screen, leave the defaults.

But, if you would like to see what is going on with the lowest possible space taken, click 'Screen' in the top column. You should then check off 'Log successful logins', and all of the options in the client directry, except 'Log directory changes'. After doing so, click 'Ok' in the bottom left corner.

You will then have to go into 'Setup -> User Accounts' (or ctrl & u). From here, you should click on the right most column, and right click. Choose 'Add', and choose the username(s) you would like people to have access to.

After giving a name (ex: themoonlanding), you will have to give them a set password in the bottom column (ex: wasfaked). For the 'Home IP' directory, (if you registered with a static server, check 'All IP Homes'. If your IP is static by default, choose your IP from the list. You will then have to right click in the very center column, and choose 'Add'.

From here, you will have to set the directory you want the people to have access to. After choosing the directory, I suggest you choose the options 'Read', 'List', and 'Subdirs', unless of course you know what you're doing . After doing so, make an 'upload' folder in the directory, and choose to 'add' this folder seperately to the center column. Choose 'write', 'append', 'make', 'list', and 'subdirs'. This will allow them to upload only to specific folders (your upload folder).

Now click on 'Miscellaneous' from the left column. Choose 'enable account', your time-out (how long it takes for people to remain idle before you automatically kick them off), the maximum number of users for this name, the maximum number of connections allowed simultaneously for one ip address, show relative path (a must!), and any other things at the bottom you'd like to have. Now click 'Ok'.

From this main menu, click the little boxing glove icon in the top corner, and right click and unchoose the hit-o-meter for both uploads and downloads (with this you can monitor IP activity). Now click the lightning bolt, and your server is now up and running.

Post your ftp info, like this: (or something else, such as: 'f*p://')

User: *** (The username of the client)

Pass: *** (The password)

Port: *** (The port number you chose)

So make a FTP and join the FTP section

Listing The Contents Of A Ftp:

Listing the content of a FTP is very simple.
You will need FTP Content Maker, which can be downloaded from here:

1. Put in the IP of the server. Do not put "ftp://" or a "/" because it will not work if you do so.
2. Put in the port. If the port is the default number, 21, you do not have to enter it.
3. Put in the username and password in the appropriate fields. If the login is anonymous, you do not have to enter it.
4. If you want to list a specific directory of the FTP, place it in the directory field. Otherwise, do not enter anything in the directory field.
5. Click "Take the List!"
6. After the list has been taken, click the UBB output tab, and copy and paste to wherever you want it.

If FTP Content Maker is not working, it is probably because the server does not utilize Serv-U Software.

If you get this error message:
StatusCode = 550
LastResponse was : 'Unable to open local file test-ftp'
Error = 550 (Unable to open local file test-ftp)
Error = Unable to open local file test-ftp = 550
Close and restart FTP Content Maker, then try again.

FTP error messages:

110 Restart marker reply. In this case, the text is exact and not left to the particular implementation; it must read: MARK yyyy = mmmm Where yyyy is User-process data stream marker, and mmmm server's equivalent marker (note the spaces between markers and "=").
120 Service ready in nnn minutes.
125 Data connection already open; transfer starting.
150 File status okay; about to open data connection.
200 Command okay.
202 Command not implemented, superfluous at this site.
211 System status, or system help reply.
212 Directory status.
213 File status.
214 Help message. On how to use the server or the meaning of a particular non-standard command. This reply is useful only to the human user.
215 NAME system type. Where NAME is an official system name from the list in the Assigned Numbers document.
220 Service ready for new user.
221 Service closing control connection. Logged out if appropriate.
225 Data connection open; no transfer in progress.
226 Closing data connection. Requested file action successful (for example, file transfer or file abort).
227 Entering Passive Mode (h1,h2,h3,h4,p1,p2).
230 User logged in, proceed.
250 Requested file action okay, completed.
257 "PATHNAME" created.
331 User name okay, need password.
332 Need account for login.
350 Requested file action pending further information.
421 Too many users logged to the same account
425 Can't open data connection.
426 Connection closed; transfer aborted.
450 Requested file action not taken. File unavailable (e.g., file busy).
451 Requested action aborted: local error in processing.
452 Requested action not taken. Insufficient storage space in system.
500 Syntax error, command unrecognized. This may include errors such as command line too long.
501 Syntax error in parameters or arguments.
502 Command not implemented.
503 Bad sequence of commands.
504 Command not implemented for that parameter.
530 Not logged in.
532 Need account for storing files.
550 Requested action not taken. File unavailable (e.g., file not found, no access).
551 Requested action aborted: page type unknown.
552 Requested file action aborted. Exceeded storage allocation (for current directory or dataset).
553 Requested action not taken. File name not allowed.

 Active FTP vs. Passive FTP, a Definitive Explanation


One of the most commonly seen questions when dealing with firewalls and other Internet connectivity issues is the difference between active and passive FTP and how best to support either or both of them. Hopefully the following text will help to clear up some of the confusion over how to support FTP in a firewalled environment.

This may not be the definitive explanation, as the title claims, however, I've heard enough good feedback and seen this document linked in enough places to know that quite a few people have found it to be useful. I am always looking for ways to improve things though, and if you find something that is not quite clear or needs more explanation, please let me know! Recent additions to this document include the examples of both active and passive command line FTP sessions. These session examples should help make things a bit clearer. They also provide a nice picture into what goes on behind the scenes during an FTP session. Now, on to the information...

The Basics

FTP is a TCP based service exclusively. There is no UDP component to FTP. FTP is an unusual service in that it utilizes two ports, a 'data' port and a 'command' port (also known as the control port). Traditionally these are port 21 for the command port and port 20 for the data port. The confusion begins however, when we find that depending on the mode, the data port is not always on port 20.

Active FTP

In active mode FTP the client connects from a random unprivileged port (N > 1024) to the FTP server's command port, port 21. Then, the client starts listening to port N+1 and sends the FTP command PORT N+1 to the FTP server. The server will then connect back to the client's specified data port from its local data port, which is port 20.

From the server-side firewall's standpoint, to support active mode FTP the following communication channels need to be opened:

FTP server's port 21 from anywhere (Client initiates connection)
FTP server's port 21 to ports > 1024 (Server responds to client's control port)
FTP server's port 20 to ports > 1024 (Server initiates data connection to client's data port)
FTP server's port 20 from ports > 1024 (Client sends ACKs to server's data port)

In step 1, the client's command port contacts the server's command port and sends the command PORT 1027. The server then sends an ACK back to the client's command port in step 2. In step 3 the server initiates a connection on its local data port to the data port the client specified earlier. Finally, the client sends an ACK back as shown in step 4.

The main problem with active mode FTP actually falls on the client side. The FTP client doesn't make the actual connection to the data port of the server--it simply tells the server what port it is listening on and the server connects back to the specified port on the client. From the client side firewall this appears to be an outside system initiating a connection to an internal client--something that is usually blocked.

Active FTP Example

Below is an actual example of an active FTP session. The only things that have been changed are the server names, IP addresses, and user names. In this example an FTP session is initiated from (, a linux box running the standard FTP command line client, to (, a linux box running ProFTPd 1.2.2RC2. The debugging (-d) flag is used with the FTP client to show what is going on behind the scenes. Everything in red is the debugging output which shows the actual FTP commands being sent to the server and the responses generated from those commands. Normal server output is shown in black, and user input is in bold.

There are a few interesting things to consider about this dialog. Notice that when the PORT command is issued, it specifies a port on the client ( system, rather than the server. We will see the opposite behavior when we use passive FTP. While we are on the subject, a quick note about the format of the PORT command. As you can see in the example below it is formatted as a series of six numbers separated by commas. The first four octets are the IP address while the second two octets comprise the port that will be used for the data connection. To find the actual port multiply the fifth octet by 256 and then add the sixth octet to the total. Thus in the example below the port number is ( (14*256) + 178), or 3762. A quick check with netstat should confirm this information.

testbox1: {/home/p-t/slacker/public_html} % ftp -d testbox2
Connected to
220 FTP server ready.
Name (testbox2:slacker): slacker
---> USER slacker
331 Password required for slacker.
Password: TmpPass
230 User slacker logged in.
---> SYST
215 UNIX Type: L8
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> ls
ftp: setsockopt (ignored): Permission denied
---> PORT 192,168,150,80,14,178
200 PORT command successful.
---> LIST
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list.
drwx------ 3 slacker users 104 Jul 27 01:45 public_html
226 Transfer complete.
ftp> quit
---> QUIT
221 Goodbye.

Passive FTP

In order to resolve the issue of the server initiating the connection to the client a different method for FTP connections was developed. This was known as passive mode, or PASV, after the command used by the client to tell the server it is in passive mode.

In passive mode FTP the client initiates both connections to the server, solving the problem of firewalls filtering the incoming data port connection to the client from the server. When opening an FTP connection, the client opens two random unprivileged ports locally (N > 1024 and N+1). The first port contacts the server on port 21, but instead of then issuing a PORT command and allowing the server to connect back to its data port, the client will issue the PASV command. The result of this is that the server then opens a random unprivileged port (P > 1024) and sends the PORT P command back to the client. The client then initiates the connection from port N+1 to port P on the server to transfer data.

From the server-side firewall's standpoint, to support passive mode FTP the following communication channels need to be opened:

FTP server's port 21 from anywhere (Client initiates connection)
FTP server's port 21 to ports > 1024 (Server responds to client's control port)
FTP server's ports > 1024 from anywhere (Client initiates data connection to random port specified by server)
FTP server's ports > 1024 to remote ports > 1024 (Server sends ACKs (and data) to client's data port)

In step 1, the client contacts the server on the command port and issues the PASV command. The server then replies in step 2 with PORT 2024, telling the client which port it is listening to for the data connection. In step 3 the client then initiates the data connection from its data port to the specified server data port. Finally, the server sends back an ACK in step 4 to the client's data port.

While passive mode FTP solves many of the problems from the client side, it opens up a whole range of problems on the server side. The biggest issue is the need to allow any remote connection to high numbered ports on the server. Fortunately, many FTP daemons, including the popular WU-FTPD allow the administrator to specify a range of ports which the FTP server will use. See Appendix 1 for more information.

The second issue involves supporting and troubleshooting clients which do (or do not) support passive mode. As an example, the command line FTP utility provided with Solaris does not support passive mode, necessitating a third-party FTP client, such as ncftp.

With the massive popularity of the World Wide Web, many people prefer to use their web browser as an FTP client. Most browsers only support passive mode when accessing ftp:// URLs. This can either be good or bad depending on what the servers and firewalls are configured to support.

Passive FTP Example
Below is an actual example of a passive FTP session. The only things that have been changed are the server names, IP addresses, and user names. In this example an FTP session is initiated from (, a linux box running the standard FTP command line client, to (, a linux box running ProFTPd 1.2.2RC2. The debugging (-d) flag is used with the FTP client to show what is going on behind the scenes. Everything in red is the debugging output which shows the actual FTP commands being sent to the server and the responses generated from those commands. Normal server output is shown in black, and user input is in bold.

Notice the difference in the PORT command in this example as opposed to the active FTP example. Here, we see a port being opened on the server ( system, rather than the client. See the discussion about the format of the PORT command above, in the Active FTP Example section.

testbox1: {/home/p-t/slacker/public_html} % ftp -d testbox2
Connected to
220 FTP server ready.
Name (testbox2:slacker): slacker
---> USER slacker
331 Password required for slacker.
Password: TmpPass
230 User slacker logged in.
---> SYST
215 UNIX Type: L8
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> passive
Passive mode on.
ftp> ls
ftp: setsockopt (ignored): Permission denied
---> PASV
227 Entering Passive Mode (192,168,150,90,195,149).
---> LIST
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list
drwx------ 3 slacker users 104 Jul 27 01:45 public_html
226 Transfer complete.
ftp> quit
---> QUIT
221 Goodbye.

The following chart should help admins remember how each FTP mode works:

Active FTP :
command : client >1024 -> server 21
data : client >1024 <- 20="" br="" server="">
Passive FTP :
command : client >1024 -> server 21
data : client >1024 -> server >1024

A quick summary of the pros and cons of active vs. passive FTP is also in order:

Active FTP is beneficial to the FTP server admin, but detrimental to the client side admin. The FTP server attempts to make connections to random high ports on the client, which would almost certainly be blocked by a firewall on the client side. Passive FTP is beneficial to the client, but detrimental to the FTP server admin. The client will make both connections to the server, but one of them will be to a random high port, which would almost certainly be blocked by a firewall on the server side.

Luckily, there is somewhat of a compromise. Since admins running FTP servers will need to make their servers accessible to the greatest number of clients, they will almost certainly need to support passive FTP. The exposure of high level ports on the server can be minimized by specifying a limited port range for the FTP server to use. Thus, everything except for this range of ports can be firewalled on the server side. While this doesn't eliminate all risk to the server, it decreases it tremendously.

Empat Kekuatan Fundamental

Sejak dahulu kala manusia selalu ingin mengetahui apa saja yang membentuk alam semesta, dari materi sampai dengan energi. Hingga kini para ilmuan meyakini ada empat energi fundamental yang membentuk alam semesta yaitu Gravitasi, Gelombang Elektromagnetik, Energi Inti Kuat Dan Energi Inti Lemah.


Suatu ketika seseorang melihat sebuah apel jatuh dari pohonnya, ya dia adalah Sir Isaac Newton. Beliau mengemukakan bahwa gravitasi adalah sebuah (gaya) kekuatan universal yang ada di seuruh alam semesta, beliau juga mengatakan lewat hukumnya “sebuah benda akan terus bergerak jika tidak ada gaya yang mempengaruhi benda tersebut”. Coba bayangkan anda berada diruang hampa dan tanpa gravitasi, lalu anda melempar bola kedepan anda, maka bola tersebut akan terus menerus bergerak kedepan anda sampai ada gaya yang menghentikannya. Dia juga mengatakan bahwa gravitasi dipengaruhi oleh massa dan jarak, itulah sebabnya jika kita semakin jauh dari bumi maka lama kelamaan kita akan “kurus”. Walaupun demikian hukum-hukum newton tidak berlaku jika berhubungan dengan sesuatu yang lebih kecil, contohnya atom. Kemudian Albert Einstein mengemukakan bahwa gravitasi adalah konsekuensi dari melengkungnya ruang dan waktu, meskipun hukum gravitasi Einstein lebih akurat tetapi hanya sedikit orang yang benar-benar memahaminya, jadi hukum newtonlah yang banyak dipakai. Meskipun terlihat besar, gravitasi adalah kekuatan terkecil dibanding dengan ketiga kekuatan lainnya.

Gelombang Elektromagnetik

Pernahkah anda berfikir kenapa kita bisa menonton televisi? Ya, itu berkat gelombang elektromagnetik. Bukan hanya televisi tetapi juga ponsel, internet, cahaya, sinar x, dan masih banyak lagi, Itu semua merupakan perwujudan dari gelombang elektromagnetik. Gelombang elektromagnetik (GE) adalah sebuah kombinasi dari Medan Listrik dan Medan Magnet. Faraday mengatakan bahwa disekitar kawat berarus listrik terdapat Medan Magnet, kemudian Maxwell mengembangkan hukumnya dan menemukan bahwa medan magnet dan medan listrik saling berhubungan. Sebenarnya GE dibangun dari dua buah hukum yang terlihat sangat sederhana yaitu, “jika ada medan listrik yang berubah-ubah maka akan timbul medan magnet” dan “jika ada medan magnet maka timbul medan listrik”. Jadi jika ada sebuah Kawat telanjang dengan arus yang berubah-ubah maka akan terjadi magnet,listrik,magnet,listrik,magnet,listrik,dst kesegala arah dengan kecepatan cahaya. Frekuensinyalah yang membuat perwujudan GE ini berbeda contoh cahaya berada direntang frekuensi 3.95x1014-7.7x1014 Hz.

Energi Inti Kuat

Siapa yang tidak mengenal rumus E=MC2? Hampir semua orang mengenal rumus ini!! Sebenarnya rumus ini telah salah tulis, rumus yang sebenarnya adalah E=∆MC2. Atom terdiri dari inti dan elektron, lalu inti dibagi lagi menjadi proton dan neutron. Elektron bermuatan negatif, proton bermuatan positif, dan neutron tidak bermuatan(netral). Jika kita menghitung berat atom dengan utuh maka kita akan mendapatkan “sebagai contoh 4 gram”, tetapi jika kita menghitung berat elektron, proton, dan neutron satu-satu, anehnya kita mendapatkan berat masing-masing 1 gram. Ada perbedaan masa 1 garm, perbedaan inilah yang membentuk ∆M pada rumus E=∆MC2. Seperti yang kita ketahui jika ada dua muatan yang sama akan saling tolak menolak, tapi pada kasus atom uranium dan plutonium yang memiliki lebih dari satu proton, anehnya walaupun proton-proton ini bermuatan sama tapi mereka malah menyatu bukan tolak menolak! Einstein berfikir bahwa Pasti ada suatu kekuatan yang lebih kuat dibandingkan dengan energi muatan tersebut, ya ini adalah energi ikat inti atau energi inti kuat atau biasa disebut “energi nuklir”. Energi ini berasal dari perbedaan masa tadi. Jadi E=1gx(3x108)2. Sebuah energi yang sangat besar.

Energi Inti Lemah

Peluruhan zat radio aktif merupakan salah satu wujud energi inti lemah. Sebagai contoh limbah nuklir akan terus mengeluarkan zat radio aktif selama beberapa tahun dikarenakan ketidakstabilan atom yang baru saja membentuk zat baru, akhirnya zat limbah tersebut melepaskan partikel-pertikel penyusunnya dalam wujud sinar gama. alpha, maupun beta. Energi ini merupakan salah satu yang berbahaya untuk kesahatan mabusia

Dikutip Dari berbagai Sumber

Karakter remaja dan permasalahannya



Masa yang paling indah adalah masa remaja.
Masa yang paling menyedihkan adalah masa remaja.
Masa yang paling ingin dikenang adalah masa remaja.
Masa yang paling ingin dilupakan adalah masa remaja.

Menurut :
Hurlock (1981) 
remaja adalah mereka yang berada pada usia 12-18 tahun.
Monks, dkk (2000) 
memberi batasan usia remaja adalah 12-21 tahun.
Stanley Hall (dalam Santrock, 2003)
usia remaja berada pada rentang 12-23 tahun.
Berdasarkan batasan-batasan yang diberikan para ahli, bisa dilihat bahwa mulainya masa remaja relatif sama, tetapi berakhirnya masa remaja sangat bervariasi. Bahkan ada yang dikenal juga dengan istilah remaja yang diperpanjang, dan remaja yang diperpendek. Remaja adalah masa yang penuh dengan permasalahan. Statemen ini sudah dikemukakan jauh pada masa lalu yaitu di awal abad ke-20 oleh Bapak Psikologi Remaja yaitu Stanley Hall. Pendapat Stanley Hall pada saat itu yaitu bahwa masa remaja merupakan masa badai dan tekanan (storm and stress) sampai sekarang masih banyak dikutip orang.
Menurut Erickson 
masa remaja adalah masa terjadinya krisis identitas atau pencarian identitas diri.
Gagasan Erickson ini dikuatkan oleh James Marcia yang menemukan bahwa ada empat status identitas diri pada remaja yaitu identity diffusion/ confussion, moratorium, foreclosure, dan identity achieved (Santrock, 2003, Papalia, dkk, 2001, Monks, dkk, 2000, Muss, 1988). Karakteristik remaja yang sedang berproses untuk mencari identitas diri ini juga sering menimbulkan masalah pada diri remaja. Gunarsa (1989) merangkum beberapa karakteristik remaja yang dapat menimbulkan berbagai permasalahan pada diri remaja, yaitu:

  1. Kecanggungan dalam pergaulan dan kekakuan dalam gerakan.
  2. Ketidakstabilan emosi.
  3. Adanya perasaan kosong akibat perombakan pandangan dan petunjuk hidup.
  4. Adanya sikap menentang dan menantang orang tua.
  5. Pertentangan di dalam dirinya sering menjadi pangkal penyebab pertentangan-pertentang dengan orang tua.
  6. Kegelisahan karena banyak hal diinginkan tetapi remaja tidak sanggup memenuhi semuanya.
  7. Senang bereksperimentasi.
  8. Senang bereksplorasi.
  9. Mempunyai banyak fantasi, khayalan, dan bualan.
  10. Kecenderungan membentuk kelompok dan kecenderungan kegiatan berkelompok.
Berdasarkan tinjauan teori perkembangan, usia remaja adalah masa saat terjadinya perubahan-perubahan yang cepat, termasuk perubahan fundamental dalam aspek kognitif, emosi, sosial dan pencapaian (Fagan, 2006). Sebagian remaja mampu mengatasi transisi ini dengan baik, namun beberapa remaja bisa jadi mengalami penurunan pada kondisi psikis, fisiologis, dan sosial. Beberapa permasalahan remaja yang muncul biasanya banyak berhubungan dengan karakteristik yang ada pada diri remaja. Berikut ini dirangkum beberapa permasalahan utama yang dialami oleh remaja.

1.    Permasalahan Fisik dan Kesehatan

Permasalahan akibat perubahan fisik banyak dirasakan oleh remaja awal ketika mereka mengalami pubertas. Pada remaja yang sudah selesai masa pubertasnya (remaja tengah dan akhir) permasalahan fisik yang terjadi berhubungan dengan ketidakpuasan/ keprihatinan mereka terhadap keadaan fisik yang dimiliki yang biasanya tidak sesuai dengan fisik ideal yang diinginkan. Mereka juga sering membandingkan fisiknya dengan fisik orang lain ataupun idola-idola mereka. Permasalahan fisik ini sering mengakibatkan mereka kurang percaya diri. Levine & Smolak (2002) menyatakan bahwa 40-70% remaja perempuan merasakan ketidakpuasan pada dua atau lebih dari bagian tubuhnya, khususnya pada bagian pinggul, pantat, perut dan paha. Dalam sebuah penelitian survey pun ditemukan hampir 80% remaja ini mengalami ketidakpuasan dengan kondisi fisiknya (Kostanski & Gullone, 1998).
Ketidakpuasan akan diri ini sangat erat kaitannya dengan distres emosi, pikiran yang berlebihan tentang penampilan, depresi, rendahnya harga diri, onset merokok, dan perilaku makan yang maladaptiv (& Shaw, 2003; Stice & Whitenton, 2002). Lebih lanjut, ketidakpuasan akan body image ini dapat sebagai pertanda awal munculnya gangguan makan seperti anoreksia atau bulimia (Polivy & Herman, 1999; Thompson et al).
Dalam masalah kesehatan tidak banyak remaja yang mengalami sakit kronis. Problem yang banyak terjadi adalah kurang tidur, gangguan makan, maupun penggunaan obat-obatan terlarang. Beberapa kecelakaan, bahkan kematian pada remaja penyebab terbesar adalah karakteristik mereka yang suka bereksperimentasi dan berskplorasi.

2.    Permasalahan Alkohol dan Obat-Obatan Terlarang

Penggunaan alkohol dan obat-obatan terlarang akhir-akhir ini sudah sangat memprihatinkan. Walaupun usaha untuk menghentikan sudah digalakkan tetapi kasus-kasus penggunaan narkoba ini sepertinya tidak berkurang. Ada kekhasan mengapa remaja menggunakan narkoba/ napza yang kemungkinan alasan mereka menggunakan berbeda dengan alasan yang terjadi pada orang dewasa. Santrock (2003) menemukan beberapa alasan mengapa remaja mengkonsumsi narkoba yaitu karena ingin tahu, untuk meningkatkan rasa percaya diri, solidaritas, adaptasi dengan lingkungan, maupun untuk kompensasi. Lain halnya dengan pendapat Smith & Anderson (dalam Fagan,2006), menurutnya kebanyakan remaja melakukan perilaku berisiko dianggap sebagai bagian dari proses perkembangan yang normal. Perilaku berisiko yang paling sering dilakukan oleh remaja adalah penggunaan rokok, alkohol dan narkoba (Rey, 2002). Tiga jenis pengaruh yang memungkinkan munculnya penggunaan alkohol dan narkoba pada remaja:
  1. Pengaruh sosial dan interpersonal: termasuk kurangnya kehangatan dari orang tua, supervisi, kontrol dan dorongan. Penilaian negatif dari orang tua, ketegangan di rumah, perceraian dan perpisahan orang tua.
  2. Pengaruh budaya dan tata krama: memandang penggunaan alkohol dan obat-obatan sebagai simbol penolakan atas standar konvensional, berorientasi pada tujuan jangka pendek dan kepuasan hedonis, dll.
  3. Pengaruh interpersonal: termasuk kepribadian yang temperamental, agresif, orang yang memiliki lokus kontrol eksternal, rendahnya harga diri, kemampuan koping yang buruk, dll. 


3. Cinta dan Hubungan Heteroseksual

Salah satu akibat dari berfungsinya hormon gonadotrofik yang diproduksi oleh kelenjar hypothalamus adalah munculnya perasaan saling tertarik antara remaja pria dan wanita. Perasaan tertarik ini bisa meningkat pada perasaan yang lebih tinggi yaitu cinta romantis (romantic love) yaitu luapan hasrat kepada seseorang atau orang yang sering menyebutnya “jatuh cinta”.
Santrock (2003) mengatakan bahwa cinta romatis menandai kehidupan percintaan para remaja dan juga merupakan hal yang penting bagi para siswa. Cinta romantis meliputi sekumpulan emosi yang saling bercampur seperti rasa takut, marah, hasrat seksual, kesenangan dan rasa cemburu. Tidak semua emosi ini positif. Dalam suatu penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Bercheid & Fei ditemukan bahwa cinta romantis merupakan salah satu penyebab seseorang mengalami depresi dibandingkan dengan permasalahan dengan teman.
Tipe cinta yang lain adalah cinta kasih sayang (affectionate love) atau yang sering disebut cinta kebersamaan yaitu saat muncul keinginan individu untuk memiliki individu lain secara dekat dan mendalam, dan memberikan kasih sayang untuk orang tersebut. Cinta kasih sayang ini lebih menandai masa percintaan orang dewasa daripada percintaan remaja.


4. Permasalahan Seksual

Dengan telah matangnya organ-organ seksual pada remaja maka akan mengakibatkan munculnya dorongan-dorongan seksual. Problem tentang seksual pada remaja adalah berkisar masalah bagaimana mengendalikan dorongan seksual, konflik antara mana yang boleh dilakukan dan mana yang tidak boleh dilakukan, adanya “ketidaknormalan” yang dialaminya berkaitan dengan organ-organ reproduksinya, pelecehan seksual, homoseksual, kehamilan dan aborsi, dan sebagainya (Santrock, 2003, Hurlock, 1991).


5. Hubungan Remaja dengan Kedua Orang Tua

Diantara perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi pada masa remaja yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan orang tua dengan remaja adalah : pubertas, penalaran logis yang berkembang, pemikiran idealis yang meningkat, harapan yang tidak tercapai, perubahan di sekolah, teman sebaya, persahabatan, pacaran, dan pergaulan menuju kebebasan. Beberapa konflik yang biasa terjadi antara remaja dengan orang tua hanya berkisar masalah kehidupan sehari-hari seperti jam pulang ke rumah, cara berpakaian, merapikan kamar tidur. Konflik-konflik seperti ini jarang menimbulkan dilema utama dibandingkan dengan penggunaan obat-obatan terlarang maupun kenakalan remaja. Beberapa remaja juga mengeluhkan cara-cara orang tua memperlakukan mereka yang otoriter, atau sikap-sikap orang tua yang terlalu kaku atau tidak memahami kepentingan remaja.


6. Permasalahan Moral, Nilai, dan Agama

Akhir-akhir ini banyak orang tua maupun pendidik yang merasa khawatir bahwa anak-anak mereka terutama remaja mengalami degradasi moral. Sementara remaja sendiri juga sering dihadapkan pada dilema-dilema moral sehingga remaja merasa bingung terhadap keputusan-keputusan moral yang harus diambilnya. Walaupun di dalam keluarga mereka sudah ditanamkan nilai-nilai, tetapi remaja akan merasa bingung ketika menghadapi kenyataan ternyata nilai-nilai tersebut sangat berbeda dengan nilai-nilai yang dihadapi bersama teman-temannya maupun di lingkungan yang berbeda.
Pengawasan terhadap tingkah laku oleh orang dewasa sudah sulit dilakukan terhadap remaja karena lingkungan remaja sudah sangat luas. Pengasahan terhadap hati nurani sebagai pengendali internal perilaku remaja menjadi sangat penting agar remaja bisa mengendalikan perilakunya sendiri ketika tidak ada orang tua maupun guru dan segera menyadari serta memperbaiki diri ketika dia berbuat salah.

Dari beberapa bukti dan fakta tentang remaja, karakteristik dan permasalahan yang menyertainya, semoga dapat menjadi wacana bagi orang tua untuk lebih memahami karakteristik anak remaja mereka dan perubahan perilaku mereka. Perilaku mereka kini tentunya berbeda dari masa kanak-kanak. Hal ini terkadang yang menjadi stressor tersendiri bagi orang tua. Oleh karenanya, butuh tenaga dan kesabaran ekstra untuk benar-benar mempersiapkan remaja kita kelak menghadapi masa dewasanya.